An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system in response to antigens, which are harmful substances. Antigens include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, chemicals, and other substances the immune system identifies as foreign.
Sometimes the body mistakenly identifies normal tissue as foreign and produces antibodies against that tissue. It is a major cause of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis or MS. To know more about monoclonal antibodies, you can also navigate https://www.bosterbio.com/featured-products.
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Antibodies are naturally produced by the immune system. However, scientists can create antibodies in the laboratory that mimic the effects of the immune system. These artificial (synthetic) antibodies work against proteins that attack normal tissue in people with autoimmune diseases.
Man-made antibodies are made by inserting human genes that produce antibodies into mice or other suitable mammals. The mice were then vaccinated with the antigen the scientists wanted to produce antibodies.
As a result, the mouse immune cells produced the desired human antibodies. The term monoclonal antibody means that an artificial antibody is synthesized by cloned immune cells and the monoclonal antibody produced identically binds to one type of antigen. Polyclonal antibodies are synthesized by different immune cells and the resulting antibodies bind to multiple antigens.